1- Metal Braces
Traditional fixed metal braces are the most commonly used orthodontic appliances; they’re also the oldest type of braces and the first orthodontic technique to appear. Fixed metal braces basically consist of two parts, the brackets and the wire.
The wire’s function is to move the teeth to their ideal positions, and the brackets connects the teeth directly to the wire, and other parts may be added to the device as needed.
The brackets are fixed directly to the teeth, and the wire passes through these brackets through small holes prepared for this.
Most of the time the appliance is placed in front of the teeth, but sometimes it can be placed in the back of the teeth, and in that case it is called: Lingual braces, and this method is characterized by not being so obvious like traditional braces are, for this reason some patients prefer it for cosmetic concerns, but it is not always possible to treat all orthodontic problems using lingual braces.
2- Clear Aligners (Invisalign®)
Some people call it invisible braces. Clear aligners are basically series of customized transparent plastic trays called aligners. The orthodontic expert changes these aligners serially according to the treatment schedule, for example, the patient wears the first aligner for a period ranging between 7 to 21 days, for at least 22 hours a day before replacing it with another aligner, but again it is not always possible to treat all orthodontic problems using clear aligners.
3- Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs)
Temporary anchorage appliances are super small mini screws that are placed in the jaw bone to apply a continuous tension that helps getting the accurate desired tooth movement.
4- Power Chains
Power chains are connected rows of elastic material that are used as a helper device with normal braces to close spaces between teeth.
5- Removable Braces
Removable braces are made up of a plastic base that covers the roof of the mouth and stainless streel wires. Removable braces are considered the treatment of choice for minor upper teeth problems in children.